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Glossary

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Glossary Description
4MATIC 4Matic is the marketing name of an AWD four-wheel drive system developed by Mercedes-Benz which is designed to increase traction in slippery conditions.
4MOTION 4motion is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG, used exclusively on Volkswagen-branded automobiles with four-wheel drive (4WD) systems. Volkswagen has previously used the term "Syncro" for its 4WD models. 4Motion gives you great grip on the road, come rain, wind or snow. So, however treacherous the road surface, you get a sure-footed car with huge levels of traction.
Adaptive Cruise Control AAC helps the driver to recognize vehicles on road ahead, detect their speed and maintain specific distance through braking and engine in deceleration. Therefore, the driver will be less stressed on highways especially at high speeds.
Air Conditioner Air conditioner helps to pump out refrigerant or air from one pressure level to a higher pressure level. The process of adjusting and regulating, by heating or refrigerating, the quality, quantity, temperature, humidity and circulation of air in a space or enclosure; to condition the air is known as air conditioning. The objective is to control the temperature and humidity of the atmospheric air and circulate the same in the automobile so that a comfortable feeling is obtained by the passengers.
Air Intake It helps in flowing of air at higher than atmospheric pressure. Normally referred to as a thermactor air supply pump.
Anti Lock Braking ABS means Antilock Braking System. A series of sensing devices at each wheel that control braking action to prevent wheel lockup.
ASR ASR means Anti Slip Regulation which is a secondary safety feature that works with the ABS on cars, trucks and sport utility vehicles. Also called Traction Control System, or TCS, the ASR helps prevent the vehicle’s wheels from losing traction by using an electro-hydraulic system that controls the engine and brakes in adverse road conditions or if the driver uses excessive acceleration and the wheels slip on the pavement.
Automatic Transmission A transmission in which gear ratios are changed automatically. In the cars with fully automatic transmission, there are only two pedals, viz., for braking and for accelerating as well as there is a selector level.
Autostick Autostick is nothing but the manually controllable automatic transmission function which is quite good for driving in mountains because it is so easy to downshift for engine braking. It has the ability to manually select gears with improved performance and more firm shifts.
Bi-Xenon Bi-xenon headlamps definitely have a shade or filter in front of the bulb at low beam operation. When the high beams are needed, the shade moves out of the way and the bulb's full light output is projected onto the road. In other words, it is an upgraded version of the Xenon headlight and it enables a single headlight to generate both high and low beam. Bi-xenon headlights are provided in luxury car makes such as Mercedes Benz, BMW, Audi etc.
BlueEFFICIENCY The BlueEFFICIENCY is a new generation of heavy duty engine from Mercedes Benz for economic running, environmental compatibility and efficiency. It is a complete package of intelligently combined, innovative technologies, which contribute to an appreciable reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The package includes 1)4 cylinder diesel engine 2)V6 CDI diesel engine with automatic transmission 3)ECO gear 6 speed manual transmissionThe BlueEFFICIENCY is a new generation of heavy duty engine from Mercedes Benz for economic running, environmental compatibility and efficiency. It is a complete package of intelligently combined, innovative technologies, which contribute to an appreciable reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The package includes
BlueMotion BlueMotion technology is provided by Volkswagen designed for energy saving from automatic start/stop to low rolling resistance tyres, work in synergy with an advanced engines and gearboxes to cut fuel consumption and reduce harmful emissions. This technology ensures higher fuel efficiency. This package can be configured with TSI and TDI engines. The package includes start stop system, change gear indicator and regenerative braking technology.
BootSpace Boot space is the compartment to keep your luggage. And it would be on the back of the car. In hatch backs it would be just back of the rear seat where as in sedans it would be acting as a seperate unit and the boot space is normally represented in liters like 450 liters of boot etc.
Boxer Engine The Boxer engine was first patented by German engineer Karl Benz in 1896. It tend to be noisier than other common engines for both intrinsic and other reasons. The Boxer engine got their name because each pair of piston moves simultaneously in and out rather than alternatively like boxers clashing their gloved fists together before a fight. It has proved to be highly successful with up to twelve cylinders in automobiles and up to six cylinders in motorcycles, and they continue to be popular for light aircraft engines.
Brake Assist Brake Assist (BA) is a generic term for an automobile braking technology that increases braking pressure in an emergency situation.
Cabriolet Cabriolet is a French word used to refer a light horse drawn carriage. It would have two wheels and a folding fabric hood that could be pulled up to protect two occupants from the weather. The Cabriolet would be pulled by a single horse because of its light weight nature. It is used in more general terms for a car with a removable roof.
CDI Capacitor discharge ignition (CDI) or thyristor ignition is a type of automotive electronic ignition system which is widely used in outboard motors, motorcycles, lawn mowers, chainsaws, small engines, turbine-powered aircraft, and some cars. The capacitive-discharge ignition uses capacitor discharge current output to fire the spark plugs.
CDTi It is also known as Multijet engine.
Central Locking The passenger doors locking and opening is regulated from single door lock. The one key will lock all the doors and open them at one instant. This system is also controlled from remote key chain compact system.
CGI CGI stands for Charged Gasoline Injection. In a CGI engine, the air and fuel mixture is not mixed until they reach the combustion chamber. The intake ports are carefully engineered to provide optimum flow and swirl, making combustion as fast and as complete as possible.
Climate Control Climate Control in a car is the system that keeps the temperature inside the car even and comfortable. This involves the car's heating and cooling systems as well as their controls. A combination of heating and air conditioning are common in most vehicles for temperature control. Top end variants feature extra climate control components, such as humidity controls and clean air systems with integrated high efficiency air filters and ionizing air cleaners. It requires regular maintenance to function properly.
Common Rail The term common rail refers to the fact that all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. This engine technology is believed to deliver more power and torque than the normal direct injection engine. It also provides better pick up, lower levels of noise and vibration, higher mileage, lower emissions, lower fuel consumptions and improved performance. Apart from others, the fuel injectors are typically ECU controlled.
Compression Ratio The ratio of the volume in the cylinder above the piston when the piston is at bottom dead center to the volume in the cylinder above the piston when the piston is at top dead center.
Compressor A device to reduce volume by pressure.
Concept Car A Concept car is also known as show vehicle, prototype vehicle which is a car made to showcase new styling and new technology. It would be often shown at Motor Shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not be mass produced. These cars never go into production directly and it would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, safety, regulatory compliance and cost.
Coupe In this type there is only one row of seats for two persons. Only two doors are provided. An ordinary saloon with roof line at decreased height is also called coupe sometime. The term grand touring added to coupe means a car of performance which is better than the average.
Coupe Cabriolet Coupe Cabriolet is one type of convertible with only two doors and thereby recalling the cabriolet carriage. The vehicle retained the rear side windows of the coupe and had fixed cant rails above these and the door glass which allowed an almost full convertible with roll over safety.
Crash Test A crash test is a form of destructive testing usually performed in order to ensure safe design standards in crashworthiness and crash compatibility for various modes of transportation or related systems and components.
CRDi Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines.
Crossover A Crossover is also termed as Crossover Utility Vehicle which is a vehicle built on a car platform and combining, in highly variable degrees, features of a Sport Utility Vehicle with features from a passenger vehicle, especially those of a station wagon or hatchback. It combines SUV design features such as tall interior packaging, high H-point seating, high center of gravity, high ground-clearance or all-wheel-drive capability — with design features from an automobile such as a passenger vehicle's platform, independent rear suspension, car-like handling and superior fuel economy.
Cruise Control Cruise control is also known as speed control or auto cruise or tempomat which is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle. It is a servo mechanism which takes over the throttle of the car to maintain a steady speed as set by the driver. The cruise control is very useful for long drives across highways and sparsely populated roads. This usually results in better fuel efficiency.
Crumple Zones The crumple zone is a structural feature mainly used in automobiles and recently incorporated into rail cars. A crash test illustrates how a crumple zone absorbs energy from an impact. Crumple zones are designed to absorb the energy from the impact during a traffic collision by controlled deformation. This energy is much greater than is commonly realized. It is located in the front part of the vehicle in order to absorb the impact of a head on collision, though they may be found on other part of the vehicle as well
D4 The D4 is designed to make genuine race car performance accessible to trackday enthusiasts at a modest cost. It features advanced underbody aerodynamics, a long arm double wishbone suspension with pushrod activated coilover dampers and an optional all-wheel drive system.
D4-D D-4D actually stands for direct Injection 4 Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine. Common rail diesels inject a fine mist of fuel into the engine at very high pressure. The result is the same power and refinement as a petrol engine, but with better fuel efficiency and lower emissions.
Daytime Running Lamps A daytime running lamp (DRL, also daytime running light) is an automotive lighting and bicycle lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle or bicycle automatically switched on when the vehicle is moving forward, emitting white, yellow, or amber light to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight conditions.
dCi The "dCi" stands for "Direct Common-rail Injection" which is a modern, high tech version of fuel injection that has only become popular in the last few years. Instead of a low pressure fuel pump feeding a fuel rail that has fuel injectors coming off it, there is a high pressure pump that feeds an individual solenoid valve for each cylinder. The main advantage is better control over both the amount and timing of the fuel that is provided to the engine and also better atomization (the spray pattern) of the fuel. It helps to provide higher power, lower fuel consumption, and lower emissions compared to traditional fuel injected engines.
Di-D DI-D seen mainly on the recently developed 4N1 engine family from Mitsubishi.
Diesel Engine The diesel engine is also known as compression ignition engine which is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark ignition engines such as a petrol engine or gas engine which use a spark plug to ignite an air fuel mixture. Diesel engines are manufactured in two-stroke and four-stroke versions
Direct Fuel Injection A fuel injection system in which fuel is injected directly onto the top of the piston.
Disc Brakes Brakes in which the frictional forces act on the faces of a disc.
Displacement This is the total piston displacement of all the engine cylinders.
Distance To Empty Distance to Empty is the measurement we drive on the current fuel tank which is quite convenient for the driver and could reach the nearest petrol pump in case we are running out of fuel.
Door Ajar Warning The "Door Ajar" warning means your door is not shut all the way.
Driver AirBags System that uses impact sensors, vehicle's on-board computer, an inflation module, and a nylon bag in the steering column and dash to protect the driver and passenger during a head-on collision.
Drum Brakes In this type brakes, a brake drum is attached concentric to the axle hub whereas on the axle casing is mounted a back plate.
EcoBoost EcoBoost is a family of turbocharged, direct injected gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company and co-developed by FEV engineering. EcoBoost engines offer a unique combination of torque, horsepower, fuel economy, performance, utility, durability and reliability.
Electric Steering Booster The Electric steering booster is the system which enhances steering wheel rotation and it performs its operation with the help of electric motors without pumps and liquids. This booster enables to drive the car eaily and it offers the chance to changes the steering options directly.
Electromechanical Steering Booster Electromechanical Steering Booster is an upgraded hydraulic booster in which the pump is fitted with electric motor and it does not take off power from the engine. The hydraulic components are not mandatory in electromechanical steering booster. Compared to hydraulic power steering, the electromechanical steering is good for fuel efficiency and ensures safety function too.
Electronic BrakeForce Distribution EBD means Electronic Brake force Distribution which is an automobile brake technology that automatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a vehicle's brakes, based on road conditions, speed, loading, etc. Always coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in order to maximize stopping power whilst maintaining vehicular control.
Electronic Stability Program ESP stands for Electronic Stability Program. While ABS and TCS intervene to regulate slip rates along the longitudinal axis, ESP goes a step further by transferrring this control principle to the lateral plane. Excessive tire slip rates lead to skids. ESP maintains straight and stable tracking under covering and during sudden evasive maneuvers while decreasing the danger of stability loss during braking, acceleration and coasting. It can modulate braking forces at the individual wheels to rectify vehicular motion patterns.
Framed Body The frame is the backbone or structural center of the vehicle. Proper alignment is of great importance to maintain the proper relationship between the body, power train, steering geometry and corresponding units. Improper frame alignment is usually the result of an accident, or the vehicle being operated with excessive loads, not properly positioned. A twisted or sprung frame will cause excessive type wear, mechanical failures in the power train and in severe cases may cause the vehicle to handle in an abnormal and sometimes dangerous manner.
FSI FSI, an acronym for fuel stratified injection, is an Audi and Volkswagen AG petrol engine family that uses direct injection technology. In this technology, fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, instead of being mixed in the intake like conventional engines. Audi claim that this increases power, torque and fuel-efficiency.
Fully Loaded Mass Fully loaded mass is defined as the sum of curb weight of the car with a full loaded luggage compartment along with the maximum number of passengers. To find the capacity of the car, just subtract curb weight from fully loaded mass and it is a maximum weight of the car.
GDI Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines. Directly injecting fuel into the combustion chamber requires high pressure injection whereas low pressure is used injecting into the intake tract or cylinder port. Gasoline direct injection enables a stratified fuel charge (ultra lean burn) combustion for improved fuel efficiency, and reduced emission levels at low load.
Ground Clearance The gap between the lowest point of a vehicle body and the ground.
Hatchback A car with a rear tailgate. Not a saloon or an estate, but something in between, e.g., Maruti 800.
HDi HDI means High pressure Direct Injection. Under this system, the fuel is injected under high pressure directly into the combustion chamber. The HDI badge, therefore, identifies both this new type of engine and those cars in the Peugeot diesel range that are equipped with the HDI system.
Headlight Washers The headlight washer system has an electrically driven rotary pump that sprays water or cleaning fluid at high pressure onto the headlight glass from the outside. This means safer driving in rain, snow and muddy road conditions. A headlight washer system is required by law with xenon headlights.
Headrest The headrests are found in all cars in order to prevent neck injuries which occur during an automobile collision.
HPi Hobby Products International or HPI of Foothill Ranch, California, USA is a manufacturer of on- and off-road radio-controlled cars, both electric-, nitromethane- and petrol-powered.
Hybrid The vehicles propelled by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor either in series or in parallel arrangment.
Hydraulic Impact The important feature of hydraulic impact is immediate stopping of engine followed by a big impact. During hydraulic impact, the pistons got broken, rods has been bent. Along with that, the cracks started in the cylinder block as well as in integral cylinder head.
Hydroplaning Hydroplaning refers to a loss of traction and sliding on a film of water. The tyre tread is the main factor in hydroplanning. The watery road surfaces can cause the tyres to hydroplane which leads to result in loss of control and steering ability since the tires may lose contact with the pavement.
i-CTDi i-CTDi stands for Intelligent Commonrail Turbocharged Direct injection. The most notable feature is the aluminum block, which uses proprietary technology to the manufacturing process of the cylinder block, and provides both light weight and high rigidity. The valvetrain is a DOHC style with chain-driven camshafts.
IDE IDE (Injection Directe Essence) first seen on Megane. Renault's design uses high ratios of exhaust gas recirculation to improve economy at low engine loads, with direct injection allowing the fuel to be concentrated around the spark
Immobilizer The immobilizers are employed to protect the vehicle against unauthorized use.
Integral body In the integral body construction, the various body sections are used as structural strength members to help support and stiffen the entire unit. All sections are welded together and this type of body construction is light in weight compared with other body structures.
ISOFIX ISOFIX is an international standardized fitting system providing the safest, easiest and quickest way to install a child car seat correctly without the need of vehicle seat belts. The name ISOFIX stands for ISO (International Standardization Organization) plus FIX (Fixation). ISOFIX car seats make use of two standard attachment points located at the base of the seat, plus an anti-tipping forward device: either a support leg or top tether.
JTD JTD, an initialism for uniJet Turbo Diesel, is Fiat Group's term for its current common rail turbodiesel engine range.
JTS The JTS engine (Jet Thrust Stoichiometric) is a gasoline direct injection engine produced by Alfa Romeo. It exists in two forms, straight-4 and V6.
Kerb Weight Curb weight is the total weight of a vehicle with standard equipment, all necessary operating consumables (e.g.,motor oil and coolant), a full tank of fuel, while not loaded with either passengers or cargo.
Keyless Start The keyless access is an electronic lock which controls access to a vehicle without usage of a traditional mechanical key. The keyless access can also be done by remote keyless system which refers to a lock that uses an electronic remote control as a key which is activated by a handheld device or automatically by proximity.
Kickdown Normally refers to an automatic transmission shifting into a lower gear to meet the demands of the driver or a heavier load.
Light Sensor A Light Sensor is something that a robot can use to detect the current ambient light level - i.e. how bright/dark it is. There different types of light sensors includes 'Photoresistors', 'Photodiodes', and 'Phototransistors'. The light detecting sensor has lot of application in safety and security devices such as a burglar alarm or garage door opener. Many modern electronics such as computers, wireless phones and televisions, use ambient light sensors to automatically control the brightness of a screen, especially low light or high light situations.
Lumbar Support Lumbar Support relieves stress at the back and improve the posture. This back support is ideal for car seats and office chairs. The back support attaches to any seat using a strong elastic strap. It can be adjusted up and down for a perfect fit.
Means of Active Safety Actions performed prior to the accidents. Active safety includes driving safety, conditional safety, perceptibility safety, operational safety etc. Driving safety is the result of a harmonious chassis and suspension design with regard to wheel suspension, springing, steering and braking and is reflected in optimum dynamic vehicle behavior.
Means of Passive Safety Passive safety measures are carried out to reduce the consequences of the accidents i.e., the actions performed after the accidents. Passive safety includes interior safety, exterior safety and interior impact areas etc.
Microvan Microvan is a vehicle between the range of a minivan and a normal hatchback. These models are not so expensive and it is widely used for small business because of tax and insurance benefits. Most microvans have two swinging front doors, two sliding rear doors and a large tailgate. Seating can vary from two to nine, these seats are usually very thin and vertical to optimise room. The side windows in commercial-only versions of microvans are replaced by metallic panels and sometimes called as "blind van".
Middle Rear ThreePoint SeatBelt Seat belt is one of the important accessory to protect the occupants during a crash. It can reduce the changes of serius injury or death in an accident. During a crash or emergency stop, seat belts can prevent the passengers from being thrown against inside the car, against other occupants, or out of the car.
Minivan A minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon. Minivans are also marketed as multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs), people-carriers, people-movers, or multi-utility vehicles (MUVs).
Multi Steering Wheel The Multi Steering Wheel is really user friendly and enables to take control of the radio, music system and other system along with mobility solutions such as without taking hands off the wheel. This helps to switch tracks, tune into a different radio staion or volume change all without taking eyes off the road for a second. It has been designed for better comfort, convenience and added safety.
MZR-CD The diesel MZR-CD engines use a cast-iron block (virtually identical to the Mazda F engine) and an aluminum cylinder head.
Off-Road Car An off-road car is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is generally determined by having tires with deep, open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks. Other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles which includes tractors, forklifts, cranes, backhoes, bulldozers etc.
On-board Computer An on-board computer is a small computer installed inside the cab of a truck. When connecting the device to other peripherals like scanners, printers, temperature or safety sensors, or to a digital tachograph offering data that significantly increase the productivity and cost efficiency of a logistics company. The on-board computer display allows drivers to exchange data with the back office in real time.
Optitronic Instrument Panel Optitronic instrument panel is designed for greater clarity and it reduces eye fatigue. It offers an outstandingly clear readability leading to less eyestrain. The instrument panel enhances driving concentration, whatever the ambient light conditions.
Overhang The distance a car sticks out from its front or rear axle.
Paddle Shift A paddle shifter is two paddle like levers on each side of the steering wheel that are used to select gears in the transmission this is done so both hands may be on the wheel at all times. The two paddles mounted on the back side of the steering wheel is for upshifting and the other for downshifting. It shifts your transmission electronically with the paddles rather than a mechanical connection beside the seat.
Parktronic Parktronic assures stress free parking. Ultrasonic sensors placed on the front and rear bumpers measure the distance to other vehicles and obstacles, offering a visual and acoustic warning while necessary. Parktronic is good for smooth parking.
Passenger AirBags System that uses impact sensors, vehicle's on-board computer, an inflation module, and a nylon bag in the steering column and dash to protect the driver and passenger during a head-on collision.
Pickup A weak permanent magnet and wire assembly that in combination with a reluctor forms a position sensor.
Power DoorLocks Power door locks (also known as electric door locks or central locking) enables the driver or front passenger to simultaneously lock or unlock all the doors of an automobile or truck, by pressing a button or flipping a switch.
Power Seats A power seat in an automobile is a front seat which can be adjusted by using a switch or joystick and a set of small electric motors. Most cars with this feature have controls for the driver's seat only, though almost all luxury cars also have power controls for the front passenger seat.
Power Windows Power windows or electric windows can be raised and lowered by depressing a button or switch, as opposed to using a hand-turned crank handle.
Ppm Ppm stands for Parts Per Million. Ppm is an abbreviation of parts per million. ppm is a value that represents the part of a whole number in units of 1/1000000.
Pressure Charging Pressure charging is a system for supercharging two stroke diesel engines of the loop scavenge. Loop-scavenge engines cannot be pressure-charged in the same way as uniflow engines or four-stroke engines because the inlet and exhaust ports are open at the same time.
Quattro Quattro is Audi’s renowned four-wheel-drive technology. With quattro, optimal drive is delivered to each wheel for superior handling and phenomenal grip – even in less than perfect driving conditions. The name quattro indicates more driving pleasure along with enhanced traction.
Rain Sensing Wipers A rain sensor is a switching device activated by rainfall. This device is used to protect the interior of the vehicle from rain and to support the automatic mode of windscreen wipers. The sensor system consists of a number of infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a central photodiode. It's especially useful in situations when your visibility is suddenly impaired - while overtaking lorries on a wet road.
Rear Defroster All cars have a front windshield defroster/defogger, it's a required safety item by federal law. A rear window defroster would be an option, that would do the same as the front one, only on the back window, so that we can see where we've been.
Restyling After diagnosis of the fault the components of sub assemblies are joined together which is called reassembly of the component.
Robotic Mechanics The science or study of the technology associated with the design, fabrication, theory and application of robots is known as robotic mechanics. Robots are the machines that does work on its own automatically with the help of Artificial Intelligence to perform those activities.
Robotic Mechanics with Two Clutches Robotic mechanics with two clutches comes with two coupling options in which one clutch enables to shift the even numbered gears and the other clutch allows to shift the odd gears. This technology helps to get rid of jerking while shifting and to maintain the momentum as well as profitability at the level of mechanical transmission.
Roofrack Additional load that cannot be accommodated in the luggage compartment can be carried at the car top, with the help of a roof rack.
Sedan A sedan has a trunk and window in the rear. The hood of the trunk is hinged below the window, which descends from the roofline to just behind the rear seats.
Alloy Wheels Light Alloy Wheels are wheels made from an alloy of aluminium or magnesium. These wheels are typically lighter for the same strength and provide better heat conduction and improved cosmetic appearance over steel wheels. They not only add great looks to the vehicle but also adds more safety for drivers and passengers.
Snorkel A snorkel is the land-based equivalent of the submarine snorkel which enabled submarines to use diesel engines while submerged. Snorkels, when used by vehicles with air-breathing internal combustion engines, allow limited deep fording capability for river crossing or amphibious landing operations.
Speedometer Speedometer indicates the vehicle speed at a particular instant and it has odometer which gives the total mileage covered by the vehicle upon the moment of taking the reading.
Sports Car It has two doors or less, is provided with a collapsible hood, a fold flat windscreen and removable side screens.
Station Wagon A car wood-panelled in the olden days, but now only with a resembling look over the steel structure. Rear door and seats for four five persons.
Steering Booster A steering booster process is provided for a motor vehicle with a steering arrangement for the input of a set steering variable by a driver, several travel sensors for detecting travel dynamic variables, a steering control system by way of which a steering control variable, which is determined dependent on the output variables of the several travel sensors, is overlapped on the set steering variable, as well as at least one other control system that influences the performance of the motor vehicle, which evaluates data from the steering control system. The additional control system is especially a braking control system for stabilizing the vehicle stability by braking individual vehicle wheels. The additional control system evaluates the set steering variable overlapped by the steering control variable from the steering control system.
Symmetrical AWD Symmetrical AWD ensures better balance, quicker response, efficient design, dynamic acceleration, accident avoidance. With this technology, driving could be enjoyed even in snow and ice regions as well as rainy areas.
Tachometer For measurement of engine rpm tachometer is used. This tachometer operates number of times make and brake circuit take place between one roation of crankshaft. The direct reading is available on the tachometer scale which is used for adjustment of engine for desired setting. The dwell cam angle circuit breaker point gap is also measured with the same equipment. The diesel engine rpm is also measured for intermittent high pressure discharge to the injector for one complete revolution of crankshaft. The rpm is also measured from infrared tachometer.
TDCi Turbo Diesel Common Rail Injection is Ford's main feature. Ford’s TDCi technology represents the next generation of diesel engines. Incredibly refined and economical, yet powerful and packed with torque, TDCi genuinely take diesel performance to the next level. All Ford TDCi models have low bracket co2 emissions and impressive fuel economy, making them the perfect choice for fleet vehicles.
TFSI Turbo fuel stratified injection (TFSI) denotes a type of forced-aspiration ("turbo") engine where the fuel is pressure-injected straight into the combustion chamber in such a way as to create a stratified charge.
THP THP stands for Turbo High Pressure, a petrol engine developed by BMW and PSA Peugeot Citroen.
Traction Control Traction Control is a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESP) on production motor vehicles, designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels. TCS is activated when throttle input and engine torque are mismatched to road surface conditions.
Tread This may be caused by overloading, excessive or insufficient air pressure, high speeds or impact. Small tread cuts when neglected may also lead to this trouble.
Turbine Turbine extracts the energy from the high pressure, high velocity gas flowing from the combustion chamber.
Underdrive An underdrive pulley refers to a crankshaft or accessory pulley (a/c, alternator, power steering, water pump, etc.) designed to turn at a slower speed than stock. To Underdrive means to slow the rate of rotation in a system.
Van A light transport vehicle with seats at the front and luggage space at the rear. Side doors are usually of sliding type. The rear door is used for loading and unloading.
Vanity Mirrors On SunVisors It refers to the mirrors placed on sunvisors. A sun visor is a component of an automobile located on the interior just above the windshield (also known as the windscreen). They are designed with a hinged flap that is adjustable to help shade the eyes of drivers and passengers from the glare of sunlight.
Variator A variator is a device that can change its parameters, or can change parameters of other devices. Often a variator is a mechanical power transmission device that can change its gear ratio continuously.
WheelBase This is the longitudinal distance between the centres of the front and the rear axles.
XDi XDI stands for eXtreme Direct Ignition System (XDI). A “Direct Fire” ignition fires the spark plugs directly from the coils and not through a distributor cap and rotor. This is accomplished by using multiple coils, each with either one or two terminals. The coil terminal are then connected directly to the spark plugs. Open spark gaps in the rotor and cap are eliminated, making wear and moisture problems a thing of the past.
xDrive xDrive can react within a tenth of a second to redistribute up to 100% of the engine power to the front or rear axle. The wet clutch is applied through a high speed electric servo motor turning a cam-shaped actuator disc.
Xenon Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas, that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Xenon is a harmless noble gas.
Valve Mechanism The Valve Mechanism is the operation performed on the valves such as opening and closing of the valves. A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
Cylinder Configuration A single-cylinder engine is a basic piston engine configuration of an internal combustion engine. It is often seen on motorcycles, auto rickshaws, motor scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, go-karts, radio-controlled models, and has many uses in portable tools and garden machinery.