Eco-friendly Cars in India

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Introduction | Toyota Prius | Honda Civic Hybrid | Reva electric | Chevrolet e-spark | Chevrolet Aveo CNG | Hyundai Santro LPG | Conclusion

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Honda Accord 3.5L V6 Variable Cylinder Management (VCM)

As the Honda Accord V6 is getting nearer, we explain you the V6 engines VCM technology. The latest generation of Variable Cylinder Management system can activate and deactivate the engine’s cylinders as needed to meet the demands of both acceleration and fuel savings. When maximum torque is required, all six cylinders are firing. During steady cruising speeds , VCM shuts down one bank of cylinders. In this mode, the audio system’s Active Noise Cancellation™ (ANC) function generates out-of-phase sound waves to cancel out any undesirable noise that may be due to the harmonics of 3-cylinder operation. As cruising speed increases the engine moves to a 4-cylinder mode for extra cruising power. To help keep engine vibration from reaching the cabin in every mode, active engine mounts automatically adjust their firmness to help absorb energy. The transition between the three operating modes is nearly seamless and goes unnoticed by the Accord’s passengers.

Mahindra’s Bolero and Scorpio micro hybrid

Bolero and Scoprio micro hybrid:

mahindra_bolero_micro_hybrid.jpgMahindra and Mahindra will soon come out with a hybrid vehicle and it will cost the same as your regular bolero or scorpio. Excited, yes M&M will bring a hybrid vehicle but not the scoprio hybrid it is developing for american market but micro hybrid version of bolero and scorpio in June. micro hybrids are not true hybrids but a conventional vehicle which shuts off the engine and uses electric power while idling. By doing it,scropio micro hybrid and boler micro hybrid will be made more economical to run. Stop/Start or plug-n-play or Micro hybrid as this technology is called conserves energy by shutting off the gasoline engine when the vehicle is at rest, such as at a traffic light to reduce the amount of time spend at idling, and automatically re-starting it when the driver pushes the gas pedal to go forward.An electronic brain keeps a careful eye on everything and refuses to stop the motor if the air conditioning is still needed or if the battery is running short on charge. Thus in the micro hybrid fuel efficiency would be marginally higher than the gasoline engine.Fuel economy / mileage gains from this technology are typically in the range of 5 to 10 percent. Also with this micro hybrid diesel clatter is put off. We made a brief test drive of bolero micro hybrid and found it good. But we found difficult to move around with the bolero micro hybrid atleast initially, when the vehicle is put to rest there is no sound coming from the engine compartment just silence which confused us whether he engine is in sleep mode and it is not turned off. But i’m sure once you started learning to live with micro hybrids you’ll love it. Micro hybrids adds almost no weight and little in the way of cost. Hcnce scorpio micro hybrid or bolero micro hybrid will be priced only at a slight premium over the existing ones.

Yamaha to introduce forged piston in India

Yamaha Motor India is set to introduce forged piston which enables lighter piston design and excellent power development, in the Indian market. The forged piston is used on the new 150cc YZF-R15, which was unveiled at Auto Expo 2008, as the first on an Indian market model and a feature that reduces the reciprocating mass of the piston by approximately 20%.

Introduced in 1997, Yamaha “controlled forging technology” has been used successfully for over a decade for the mass production of forged aluminum pistons because it utilizes a system of precise control of the piece temperature, mold temperature and the forging force. Yamaha’s controlled forging technology tightly controls the forging conditions, including (1) the initial heating of the work piece, (2) controlling the temperature of the mold so that it keeps the work piece in the ideal 400 to 500 ? range (3) applying just the right amount of pressure to the mold in the forging process and many more factors.

According to Mr. Sanjay Tripathi, Head of Dept- Product Planning & Strategy, “Pistons for car and motorcycle engines are usually cast by pouring molten aluminum alloy into a mold. The other type of piston is the forged piston, with which the alloy is not melted but heated to the point where it can be forged into a mold under pressure. Since the aluminum is not melted in the forging process, it retains a stronger metallurgic quality. This makes possible a thinner, and thus lighter, piston that has less reciprocating mass and also contributes to weight reduction. The result is better revving and lesser engine vibrations.”

Yamaha’s YZF R15 to come with cutting edge technology

Yamaha which showcased two new 150cc bikes, today said that the YZF R15 will be equipped with next-generation DiASil (Die-casting Aluminum-Silicon) Cylinder. Yamaha’s “DiASil Cylinder” is an all-aluminum die-cast cylinder with 60% better cooling performance and 30% cheaper production cost than a conventional cylinder. Yamaha “DiASil Cylinder” , is the world’s first all-aluminum die-cast cylinder and it achieves cooling performance equivalent to that of a nickel-plated cylinder, which is currently recognized as the best in the industry, but at a significantly lower production cost than a nickel-plated cylinder.  DiASil  is a technology which brings together an ideal combination of material, manufacturing technology and environmental friendliness. The material used is a 20% silicon content aluminum alloy, the manufacturing technology is the Yamaha CF Aluminum Die-cast Technology (*3), which enables the production of an all-aluminum die-cast cylinder. It is Yamaha’s exclusive CF Aluminum Die-cast Technology that enables the mass production of a die-cast cylinder made completely of 20% silicon content aluminum alloy, something that could not be done with conventional die casting methods.  According to Mr. Sanjay Tripathi, Head of Dept- Product Planning & Strategy, “Conventional engine cylinders have a steel liner to reduce the friction resulting from the piston’s movement. The “DiASil” cylinder is made by the exclusive Yamaha Aluminum Controlled Forging (CF) technology. Because the “DiASil” Cylinder is all aluminum, it has excellent heat dissipation qualities and reduces engine weight at the same time. In comparison to cast steel liner type aluminum cylinders, the DiASil cylinder has 60% better cooling performance at 30% lower manufacturing cost and enables 30% lighter design which results in better power to weight ratio besides excellent recyclability.

Is direct Injection Bajaj’s next DTSi?

If you still believe RX100 is superior to pulsar’s and apache’s and trust the two stroke engines more than four stroke’s in a race, set your eye on Bajaj Auto. Bajaj may soon come with two stoke two wheeler again but this time with more efficiency. Bajaj recently introduced the GDi in its three wheelers and found that it increases the mileage and reduces the emissions. Indications are that an agreement has been finalised with Bosch of Germany for a GDI system in Bajaj bikes he Bosch relationship could logically extend to the company’s small car being planned in an alliance with Renault and Nissan.

The GDi for the autorickshaw is a Synerject (the joint venture between Orbital Corporation of Australia and Siemens VDO) system, which has now come into India with Chennai-based UCAL as the licensed supplier. Bajaj’s proven Digital Twin Spark Ignition may pave way for the much superior GDi technology atleast in smaller capacity bikes. In european markets, already there ar two wheelers powered by this technology. The Orbital system is used in motor scooters manufactured by Aprilia, Piaggio, Peugeot and Kymco. Let’s check out the GDi?

GDi – Gasoline Direct Injection, as the name implicates it means injecting the fuel directly into the cylinder. Two types of GDI are used in two-strokes: low-pressure air-assisted, and high pressure. When applied in two stroke engines, GDi makes remarkable improvement in mileage section. In conventional (carburetted) two-stroke engine exhaust port opens too early(before the completion of the stroke) and lets out the unburnt fuel charge. In direct injection technoogy the gasoline is injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of the cylinder. The result is the only air comes from the crankcase(as opposed to the charge in conventional two stroke), and fuel is not injected until the piston rises and all ports are closed. This results gain in fuel efficiency and reduction in emission.

Rather than using high pressure injection to atomize the fuel charge in a manner similar to diesel injection, Orbital uses an air-assisted low-pressure direct fuel injection, combustion and engine management system: the Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) technology. With OCP, compressed air breaks up the fuel droplets. At light loads, the direct injection system allows engines to run very lean. Under high load conditions, the OCP system runs similar to a homogeneously charged engine, with good mixing of the fuel/air mixtures within the cylinder.
The cylinder head in a DI engine carries a fuel rail assembly which contains a fuel injector and a pressure regulator. Filtered fuel is supplied to the fuel rail assembly by an electric pump and filtered lubrication oil is through another. Fuel injector meters the fuel under regulated pressure and sends the fuel to the air injector. The air injector recieves the air compressed by the crank and injects this fine mist of air,fuel and lubricant into the combustion chamber. The result is more efficient atomisation which results in efficient combustion. The ECU(Electronic Control Unit) which is the brain of this system computes the speed and load desired from sensors. Crank postion sensor, throttle position sensor and engine temperature sensor sends data to the ECU. With those inputs, ECU determines quantity of fuel to be injected, timing of injection, metering of lubricant and timing of spark

Though the tech is not revolutionary and simple, it results in better combustion of fuel. Also, it is more practical and can be adapted even in the existing two stroke engine with few changes.

Yamaha YZF R1

R1’s tech:

Atleast Yamaha has now finalized to bring dozens of YZF R1 and MT01. Yamaha’s YZF R1 and YZF R6 are popular superbike and supersport bikes. Yamaha introduced the first R1 in 1998 and since its introduction; the YZF R1 has consistently exceeded the expectations of supersport riders all over the world in one litre category. Yamaha rolled out the fifth generation YZF R1 in October 2006.

Yamaha have always placed great emphasis on the importance of the man-machine relationship, and with this as Yamaha’s guiding principle, it has developed a new fifth-generation R1 which showcases a whole range of advanced new technology. Now as most of the focus in the superbike development has on computer control, Yamaha is at the forefront of this exciting new technology. But these technologies never diluted the bike enthusiast aspiration; Yamaha’s ‘Art of Engineering’ is all about to enhance the man-machine relationship, which ultimately makes a motorcycle so different from any other form of transport. Here’s some information on these exciting technologies.

G.E.N.I.C.H. is by how Yamaha calls the complete R1 technologies. G.E.N.I.C.H. [Jenik] stands for Genesis in Electronic engineering aimed at New, Innovative Control technology based on Human sensibilities. Yamaha’s G.E.N.I.C.H. technology is an advanced concept which involves the application of cutting-edge electronic control technology in order to realise the dual goals of achieving increased performance and enhancing the riding experience. G.E.N.I.C.H. [Jenik] stands for Genesis in Electronic engineering aimed at New, Innovative Control technology based on Human sensibilities. yamaha-yzf-r1.jpg


Slipper clutches are specialized clutches developed for racing motorcycles to mitigate the effects of engine braking when riders decelerate as they enter corners. They are designed to partially disengage or “slip” when the rear wheel tries to drive the engine faster than it would normally. The engine braking forces in conventional clutches will normally be transmitted back along the drive chain causing the rear wheel to hop, chatter or lose traction. This is especially noted on larger displacement four-stroke engines, which have greater engine braking than their two-stroke or smaller displacement counterparts. Slipper clutches eliminate this extra loading on the rear suspension giving riders a more predictable ride and minimize the risk of over-revving the engine during downshifts. Slipper clutches can also prevent a catastrophic rear wheel lockup in case of engine seizure or transmission failure. Generally, the amount of force needed to disengage the clutch is adjustable to suit the application.

Yamaha Chip Controlled Throttle (YCC-T) YCC-T stands for Yamaha Chip Controlled Throttle is claimed to achieve outstanding response across the rev range. The ECU unit records the rider’s throttle position and calculates the optimal throttle valve opening, operating the throttle valve by an electric motor drive; one feature of the system is that it actively initiates control of the volume of intake air. In particular, optimizing the drive torque curve and intake airflow speed by controlling the opening degree of the throttle valve helps achieve a smoother, throttle response for YZF R1 riders.

New YCC-I (Yamaha Chip Controlled Intake)

The latest and most innovative product of the Yamaha G.E.N.I.C.H. engineering concept is YCC-I, which makes its debut on the 2007 YZF-R1, and is the first-ever electronically-controlled motor-driven variable intake on a production motorcycle. The intake passage length on an engine is designed to ensure the highest volumetric efficiency in the most commonly used rpm band for that particular powerplant. Generally speaking, a long intake passage and funnel tends to deliver stronger low to mid-range performance, and conversely a shorter intake passage and funnel is typically better for high rpm applications.

During the intake process on any four-stroke engine, the downwards motion of the piston creates negative pressure in the intake passage, which causes a pressure difference with the air and its natural inertia. This pressure difference causes a reverse reaction in the direction of the intake valve in a function known as ‘inertial charging’, and this phenomenon increases the engine’s volumetric efficiency.

The shorter intake design produces a faster beat to the pressure wave which optimises volumetric efficiency, while a longer intake leads to a slower pressure wave beat. Yamaha’s designers have succeeded in creating YCC-I, a unique new electronically-controlled intake system which ensures optimum performance at both low and high engine speeds. The YCC-I system features electronically-controlled variable intake funnels, and is the first electronically-controlled motor-drive system ever used on a production motorcycle. This unique system features four lightweight plastic resin funnels which are divided into an upper and a lower section, and while fully connected, the two sections create a funnel of 140mm in length. However, when the new R1 engine reaches a specific rpm – and the throttle opening also exceeds a certain level – the upper and lower funnels separate to create a shorter intake funnel of 65mm in length. The pre-programmed separation of all intake four funnels is simultaneous, and is driven by an electronically-controlled servo motor.

In effect, the new R1 engine is a true ‘no compromise’ design which is able to deliver highly efficient performance in a wide range of riding conditions. Riding around town at lower rpm, the 998cc engine is operating with its long 140mm intakes, which give strong torque and excellent throttle response. And once the rider increases the engine speed and throttle opening on fast highways or when circuit riding, the intake length is instantaneously reduced to 65mm, allowing the engine to reach its full potential. Another advantage of the new YCC-I system is that its structure is minimal and simple, giving optimal reliability combined with low weight.

Combustion chamber with 4-valve head design

Yamaha’s engineers have focused on air intake volume control and intake efficiency as the key areas in the development of the new R1 engine. The adoption of YCC-I and YCC-T are complemented by the introduction of an all-new cylinder head which is designed to work in close harmony with the new G.E.N.I.C.H. technologies in order to achieve our goal of increased performance at all engine speeds. The use of YCC-I and YCC-T have transformed the operation of the new generation engine, and in order to maximise the gains offered by this new technology, the cylinder head design has been completely revamped. In order to complement the new electronic intake and throttle control technologies, virtually every aspect of the 2007 cylinder head layout is new. The R1’s reshaped combustion chamber runs with a higher compression ratio of 12.7:1, and the valve angle has been revised to 24 degrees – the same angle that is used on the 2006 R6. For 2007 the R1 utilises an all-new four-valve cylinder head design developed from the advanced technology seen on our Rossi’s YZR-M1 MotoGP race bike, and features two 31mm diameter intake valves, and two 25mm exhaust valves.

The two intake valves are manufactured from titanium for reduced reciprocating weight, which promotes the increased intake valve lift featured on the 2007 engine. And to ensure efficient high-rpm operation, the R1 runs with lightweight VX alloy valve springs which are designed to handle continuous high-load riding conditions.

These changes to the cylinder head design maximise the benefits of the new YCC-I and YCC-T by ensuring greater air intake volume at all engine speeds. The result is extremely high levels of combustion efficiency which contribute greatly to the new engine’s stronger and more linear performance throughout its wide operating range.

Midship muffler and EXUP: To ensure excellent exhaust efficiency, concentration of mass, and aerodynamic characteristics, this model adopts a midship muffler. The design aims to make use of the space behind engine resulting from the shorter front-aft length of the new engine and the long rear arm. It also gives the machine a striking appearance.

EXUP is adopted to control exhaust pulsation in the exhaust chamber and improve air intake/exhaust efficiency. One EXUP valve is placed at the point where the four exhaust pipes merge to make for a more compact design. The EXUP body is made of lightweight titanium.

3-way catalyser with oxygen sensor

A new 3-way catalyser with oxygen sensor not only reduces emissions, it also helps to achieve excellent fuel economy. The new system features platinum and rhodium elements in a honeycomb-shaped catalyser. The system’s efficiency is further improved by the addition of an oxygen sensor which feeds information to the ECU, which can instantaneously adjust fuel supply to ensure optimum combustion efficiency for improved performance and cleaner emissions.

Engine highlights:

*Short-stroke 998cc DOHC, 16-valve, liquid-cooled inline four- cylinder engine produces more tractable power than ever.

*Yamaha Chip Control Throttle controls a 32-bit ECU fuel injection system for super-responsive, smooth, instantaneous power delivery.

*Yamaha Chip Control Intake electronically adjusts intake funnel length between either 65 or 140mm for an amazingly broad, smooth powerband.

*Two-piece ergonomically designed fuel tank carries fuel in the rear section, for good centralization of mass, while the front half contains a Ram-Air-fed airbox for increased power.

*Lay-down design cylinder head optimizes weight distribution, straightens intake tracts for improved cylinder filling, and allows frame to pass over instead of around the engine for great strength and a narrow chassis.

*Closed-deck cylinder block increases strength and allows a narrow engine in spite of big, 77mm bores.

*Narrow-angle four-valve combustion chambers produce a highly efficient 12.7:1 compression ratio; 31mm titanium intake valves and 25mm exhausts controlled by new, high-lift cams flow plenty of air.

*Light and strong nutless connecting rods with fractured big ends produce a quick-revving engine with excellent high-rpm durability.

*High silicon-content ceramic-composite cylinder sleeves ensure great heat dissipation for consistent power delivery and reduced friction.

*Close-ratio six-speed gearbox with triangulated shaft layout for great strength, compactness, and quicker acceleration.

*Ramp-type slipper clutch makes braking from speed into tight corners while downshifting smoother and therefore faster.

*Redesigned titanium underseat exhaust system (with stainless steel midpipe and catalyst) provides excellent cornering clearance and a broad, seamless powerband.

*13-percent greater radiator capacity and an aluminum liquid-cooled oil cooler maintain stable operating temperature.

*Direct ignition coils, dual-electrode spark plugs and high-output magneto deliver extremely accurate, reliable firing.

*AC generator behind cylinder block produces a narrow engine with excellent cornering clearance.

click here to view 2007 YZF R1’s innovations

source: yamaha and businessweek

Bullet’s Lean Burn Engine


Lean burn engine, you must have heard this when TVS launched its apache but before apache Royal Enfield incorporated this technology in Thunderbird. In the Lean Burn engine included valve angle has been reduced from 80 to 55 degrees for better flow, and the combustion chamber has been made more compact to promote faster, cleaner burning. Repositioning the valves allows the spark plug to be more centrally located to shorten the flame path. The pushrod-actuated valve train has been lightened and strengthened, and the bike also gets other improvements in bearings and lubrication in the interest of longer engine life. The compression release activates automatically with the electric starter, or you can use the manual release with the kickstarter. Finally, the Pulse Air System helps it meet most emissions requirements. Royal Enfield offers 346cc bikes Bullet 350, Bullet Electra, Bullet Electra 5S, Bullet Machismo and Thunderbird in India. The company’s R&D Team is working with design experts to put a new bike which would have better fuel efficiency and would be offered at a more affordable price point from the Royal Enfield stable on the roads in 2007. The new bike is expected to be lighter by 15 kg (the present mean machines weigh approximately 175 kg!). The new offering will be in the 350 cc and above

TVS apache’s IDI and IE surge…

IDI –Inductive Discharge Ignition:

Inductors and Capacitors are the important components in modern ignition systems. Most manufacturers choose digital CDI – Capacitor Discharge Ignition system but TVS has opted for IDI – Induction Discharge Ignition system. Earlier manufactures moved to CDI from IDI because of the following problem with IDI. IDI are driven off points which trigger a coil that sends a charge to the spark plug. However, they require exact points and plug gap settings. This drawback made many manufacturers to move to CDI. Capacitors in CDI recharge quickly and hence deliver multiple spark at low rpm or strong till 10000 rpm. The CDI has its own drawback i.e. CDI sparks are extremely short in duration and the amount of energy that can be delivered is also limited unlike the IDI which can deliver longer spark. TVS has opted refined IDI for its apache – employs a variation, micro controller circuit triggers the coil depending on the crank position without needing points. In the process, it generates a 1200 micro seconds (200 -250 micro seconds in other bikes) long spark with 60 milli Joules of energy as seen on some Royal Enfield bikes. Thus with the refined IDI TVS claims apache engine sparks twice as fat and last six times longer than its counterparts. This ensures better combustion (by burning lean mixtures) which means quick response from your apache when you accelerate your apache.


IE surge – Intake Exhaust Resonator:

The second most important technology which powers the Apache is IE surge – the decals (letterings) are nicely placed on the side panels of the Apache. IE surge is nothing but Intake and Exhaust resonator for strong 3500 – 5500 rpm thrust and by this you can reap the benefits of running a large diameter intake and exhaust headers without losing the associated part – throttle response issues. Intake resonator helps to improve the response of the bike. Connected to the air box, the resonator is basically a box which stores air, and then rushes the air to the combustion chamber when the throttle is suddenly opened cutting the ignition lag significantly. Exhaust resonator works like the exhaus-TEC (Torque Expansion Chamber) on Bajaj bikes. Exhaust resonance chamber is fitted on the tuned exhaust to enhance power delivery in the lower reaches of the power band. This technology is to use the exhaust energy thereby ensuring that sufficient levels of torque is available at low engine rpm levels and is optimized to provide torque distribution in the mid and higher range rpm levels.

Next time when you push your apache I believe you can understand what it has!


Honda’s VTEC and Toyota’s VVTi

What are VTEC and VVTi?

The real secret of developing efficient petrol engines is in the supply of air, the art which has been researched since the internal combustion engine was seen. The VTEC by Honda and VVTi by Toyota are important steps in achieving high efficient engines.

VTEC (Very Talented Engine Control) and VVTi (Variable Valve Timing with Intelligence) are similar in effect but differ in technology. VVTi engine features in Toyota Camry, Toyota Innova, Toyota Corolla, Toyota Prado and VTEC engine powers Honda Accord, Honda CR-V, Honda Civic, Honda City.

Honda’s VTEC:

Honda’s VTEC uses two sets of cam shaft profiles – one for low and mid range rpm and another for high rpm operation. An electronic switch shifts between the two profiles at a specific rpm to increase peak horsepower and improve torque. When you ride Honda’s car, you can both hear and feel the change when the ‘VTEC’ kicks in at higher rpm to improve performance. While this system does not offer continuously variable valve timing, it can make most of high rpm operation while still providing solid driveability at lower rpm levels.

Toyota’s VVTi:

Instead of on/off system that VTEC employs, Toyota’s VVTi employs a continuously variable system that maximizes valve timing throughout the revolution range using a hydraulic system rather than the mechanical system to alter the intake cam’s phasing

Honda’s VTEC Vs Toyota’s VVTi:

The main difference between VTEC and VVTi is that VVTi maintains the same cam profile and alters only when the valves open and close in relation to engine speed. Also, VVTi works only on the intake valve while Honda’s VTEC has two settings for the intake and exhaust valves, which makes for a more dramatic gain in peak power than VVTi can claim.